“MuCovid-21” study: Mucormycosis at an Indian tertiary care centre during the COVID-19 pandemic

Background Mucormycosis has been reported in several Indian states with the second wave of COVID-19 from January 2021 onwards. This prospective study was conducted with the objective of defining the contribution or association of various known and many suspected factors in the incidence of this disease during the ongoing pandemic.

“Please see this man with a 69-year history of hypoglycaemia”

Mutations in the HNF4A gene are associated with hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia in infants, frequently evolving into relative deficiency of insulin in adulthood ­­­as maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). A 69-year-old male with a strong family history of adult-onset diabetes was referred with lifelong hypoglycaemia, found to be due to a pathogenic HNF4A mutation. HbA1c levels were low, continuous glucose monitoring demonstrated frequent low glucose events in the early morning, and he was successfully treated with diazoxide.

Diabetes in the young – a case of Alström syndrome with myopathy

Alström syndrome is a rare ciliopathy affecting about 1 in 1,000,000 individuals. It is characterised by cone-rod dystrophy, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, cardiomyopathy, renal failure and hypogonadism. Progressive multi-organ dysfunction eventually leads to death. Only about 800 patients with this disorder have been identified so far. The diagnosis of Alström syndrome is critical as it can easily be overlooked because of the many features it shares with metabolic syndrome.

Dr William Wilson Ingram (1888–1982): doctor-soldier, physician and Antarctic expeditioner

Dr William Wilson Ingram (1888–1982), a Scottish-born physician, contributed significantly to the health and heritage of Australia, his adopted land. Born on Speyside and educated in Aberdeen, he was a doctor-soldier in two World Wars and decorated with the Military Cross. Ingram was a Foundation Fellow (1938) of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians and established one of the first specialist diabetic clinics in Australia, in Sydney in 1928.

Diagnosis in diabetes: does it matter?

The diagnosis of diabetes subtypes in a busy clinic is usually based on the age at onset, phenotype and biochemical diagnostic criteria. Not surprisingly, the focus is predominantly on diagnosing type 1 and type 2 diabetes. More challenging for the physician is to think of monogenic diabetes, which results from gene mutations that reduce beta cell function. Often misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is the most common form of monogenic diabetes, accounting for 1–2% of all diabetes cases.

The eclipse and rehabilitation of JJR Macleod, Scotland’s insulin laureate

John JR Macleod (1876–1935,) an Aberdonian Scot who had emigrated
to North America, shared the 1923 Nobel Prize with Frederick Banting for their
discovery of insulin at the University of Toronto in 1921–22. Macleod finished his
career as Regius Professor of Physiology at the University of Aberdeen from 1928
to 1935. Macleod’s posthumous reputation was deeply tarnished by the campaigns
against him carried out by his fellow laureate, Banting, and by Banting’s student
assistant during the insulin research, Charles Best. Banting’s denigration of Macleod

Metformin in diabetic pregnancy

An ever-increasing number of women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are going through pregnancy and, with the current epidemic of obesity, more women are being diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Insulin has traditionally been the gold standard in diabetic pregnancy because of its efficacy and the fact that it does not cross the placenta. However, recent data from welldesigned trials and meta-analysis on the use of oral agents in  gestational diabetes may mark a significant shift in clinical practice.