Dilated cardiomyopathy: a preventable presentation of DiGeorge Syndrome

Patients with cardiac failure require careful evaluation to determine the precise nature of the cause of their illness. Genetic causes of dilated cardiomyopathy are well known but inherited conditions may lead to unexpected consequences through intermediate mechanisms not readily recognised as a feature of the inherited disorder. We describe a case of dilated cardiomyopathy resulting from prolonged hypocalcaemia due to previously undiagnosed hypoparathyroidism resulting from DiGeorge Syndrome and describe the features of this case and the treatment of hypoparathyroidism.

A case of denosumab-induced hypocalcaemia in a patient with non-metastatic prostate cancer and renal impairment

Denosumab is an emerging new treatment for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men with non-metastatic prostate cancer. It is largely used by specialists as an alternative treatment in patients with contraindications to traditional, more commonly used drugs such as bisphosphonates. One important side effect is hypocalcaemia, which may be life threatening. The risk of this is increased in renal impairment, mainly if eGFR < 30 ml/min/1.73m2, and is exacerbated by vitamin D insufficiency.

Serum potassium, calcium and magnesium in patients receiving ESHAP chemotherapy for relapsed lymphomas

Etoposide, methylprednisolone, cytarabine and cisplatin (ESHAP) is one of the mostly widely used chemotherapy regimens for patients with relapsed lymphomas. Cisplatin administration is commonly associated with electrolyte imbalance. Careful monitoring of renal function and serum electrolytes is therefore essential in this setting.

Aims: To review the practice of electrolyte monitoring – potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) – in patients receiving ESHAP and the frequency and severity of abnormalities and their management.